Proper Cooking Temperatures

The following proper cooking temperatures (anything italicized) are directly from the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (8/11)

Note: All temperatures are in Fahrenheit

Ground Meat & Meat Mixtures
Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb: 160
Don’t be alarmed if you purchase ground beef that has dark patches. When packaged, oxygen is usually removed, which helps meat to keep its rich red color. When oxygen comes into contact with beef (fresh), it begins to turn a brown color. In most cases, this is completely normal.

Turkey, Chicken: 165

Fresh Beef, Veal, Lamb
Steaks, roasts, chops: 145

“raw” – Uncooked meat.
“rare” – The outside of the meat is browned and although the inside is warm, it is bright red. Normally, this kind of steak is cooked at high temperatures for a short period of time.
“medium rare” – The very center of this steak may be a little bit red, but overall, the inside is mostly pink.
“medium” – The meat does not contain red, but does have a decent strip of pink through the middle. This is probably the most common.
“medium well” – This meat will be similar to “medium”, but the strip of pink will be much more subtle, only being seen slightly.
“well” – The meat contains no red or pink.

Chicken & Turkey, whole: 165
Poultry breasts, roasts: 165
Poultry thighs, legs, wings: 165
Duck & Goose: 165
When cooking poultry, another tip is to look for juices to be clear. If they are still milky, it isn’t done yet.

Stuffing (cooked alone or in bird): 165
Be aware that it always takes longer to cook a bird if it is stuffed with stuffing.

Pork and Ham
Fresh pork: 145
To make pork juicier, try brining it first.

Fresh ham (raw): 145
Precooked ham (to reheat): 140

Eggs & Egg Dishes
Eggs: Cook until yolk and white are firm
Egg dishes: 160

Leftovers & Casseroles
Leftovers: 165
Casseroles: 165

Fin Fish: 145 or cook until flesh is opaque and separates easily with a fork.
Shrimp, lobster, and crabs: Cook until flesh is pearly and opaque.
Clams, oysters, and mussels: Cook until shells open during cooking.
Scallops: Cook until flesh is milky white or opaque and firm.
If you don’t feel comfortable frying or grilling these kinds of fish, try steaming them.